IMAGE 1- Aniseed
Aniseed is a herbaceous annual plant with an average height of 30 to 50 cm. It has long-stalked basal leaves and shorter, stalked stem leaves. The leaves are simple, 1.3-5.1 cm long The flowers are white, approximately 3 mm diameter and whitish, mumerous in open thin, compound umbrels, followed by the fruit. Fruit looks like ribbed seeds and is often referred to as seed, is 3-5 mm long, oval in shape, the colour is grey-green or greenish-brown when ripe. The plant is completely covered with fine hairs. Anise is harvested as the seeds change colour to grey-green. Aniseed can be grown in a sunny, sheltered spot. It is propagated by seed in early spring in a sunny, sheltered area in light, dry loam. It should does not like pot prowing or to be transplanted. It will not produce ripe seeds in northern climates without a long, hot summer.
/ IMAGE 2- Carob
The carob( Ceratonia siliqua) is an evergreen shrub from the Fabaceae family and native to Mediterranean and its seed pods are edible. Its height reaches up to 10 meters. It has a wide crown and a thick trunk. The brown bark is rough and the branches are sturdy. Pinnate leaves are 10-20 cm long and drop shaped. The flowers are 6-12 cm long with greenish red colour and are small and many in number. The carob pods are in a purplish brown colour, shiny and flat with a length of 10-30 cm. The middle layer of the fruit is soft and sweet when fresh. In every pod there are about fifteen hard shelled flat seeds. The seeds contain a subtance calle Trigosol. It grows in Turkey around Antalya, Silifke, Anamur, Datça in small and big groups. A mature carob tree can produce fruits up to 1000 kg.
/ IMAGE 3- Cumin Seeds
Cumin is the seed of the plant Cumimum cyminum, it is an herbaceous plant, grows to 30-50 cm, with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. The blue-green leaves are 5-10 cm long, divided into long, deep green colour narrow segments. The upper leaves are nearly stalkless, but the lower ones have longer leaf-stalks. The flowers are small, white or pink, and borne in umbels. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. The seed come as paired or separate carpels, and are 3-6 mm long. They have a striped pattern of nine ridges and oil canals, and are hairy, brownish in colour, boat-shaped, tapering at each extremity , with tiny stalks attached. Cumin is grown from seed, cultivation of cumin requires a long, hot summer of 3-4 months, with daytime temperatures around 30°C and is mostly grown in Mediteranian climates. The plants bloom in June and July. The seeds are normally ready four months after planting.
/ IMAGE 4- Fennel
Fennel is a hardy perennial related to parsley reachs heights of 1.5-2.5 m. Blue gren filiform leaf segments (40 cm long ) are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments about 0.5 mm wide. The bright yellow flowers, produced in large, flat terminal umbels, with from 13 to 20 rays, they are in bloom in July and August. Fennel seeds split into two, one sometimes remaining on the stalk. Seeds are 4-8 mm long, thin and curved, with colour varying from brown to light green. The flower heades are collected before the seeds ripen and threshed out when they completely dried. Ideal soils for cultivating the fennel are deep and well-drained soil, which is non-acidic in chemical composition, at the same time, any good quality soil can be used to cultivate the fennel. The optimum pH range tolerated by the fennel lies from 4.8 to 8.2. The plant grows best when it is exposed to the full sunlight, even though it also grows quite well in shaded areas.
/ IMAGE 5- Laurel (Bay) Leaves
Bay is a hardy evergreen shrub that grows wild or cultivated, it can be grown as a single-trunked tree or a multi-trunked shrub. In warm areas it can as high as 18 m. The smooth bark may be olive-green or of a reddish hue. The luxurious, evergreen leaves are alternate, with short stalks, lanceolate, 8 to 10 cm long, the margin smooth and wavy. They are thick, smooth, and of a shining, dark green colour. The flowers are small, yellow and unisexual, and grow in small clusters. The fruits are small, red-blue single-seeded berries that later turn black about 12 mm in size. The laurel leave is native plant of the Mediterranean region and can be propagated in three basic methods by layering, sowing seeds or by taking cuttings from individual plants, trees are self-infertile, so a male tree is needed to set seed. Leaves can be harvested at any time.
/ IMAGE 6- Linden Flower
Linden species are large deciduous trees that can grow to a height of 25 of 33 meters. The leaves are alternately arranged, rounded to triangular-ovate, 3-8 cm long and broad, mostly hairless (unlike the related Tilia platyphyllos). The yellowish-white flowers of Tilia cordata are arranged in clusters that hang from slender stalks. The fruit is a dry nut-like drupe 6-7 mm long and 4 mm broad. Linden tree may be propagated by cuttings and grafting as well as by seed. They grow rapidly in a rich soil, but are subject to the attacks of many insect enemies. It needs in sun or partial shade, will tolerate alkaline soil if it is moist, and it transplants well. It is nor particularly tolerant of drought, scorching at the leaf margins in summer drought.
/ IMAGE 7- Liquorice
Licorice is a woody perennial plant it grows in rich soil to a height of 1-1.5 m. Leaves are oval shaped, flowers are purplish flower (1.2 cm) and clustered. Below ground, the licorice plant has an extensive root system with a main taproot and numerous runners. The fruit is an oblong pod and ontains several seeds. Licorice has strong root system, the main taproot and many horizontal spreading roots. Main root is harvested for medicinal use it is soft, fibrous, and bright yellow interior. The dried roots look like pieces of dried wood, very hard and fibrous, about 1 cm in diameter. It has sweet taste with a slightly bitter, slightly salty aftertaste. Plant licorice loves well-limed and well drained deep soil, prefers sunny position. If soil tends to be clayey, plant on raised beds or hills. The plant grows most in a warm climate, cool weather interferes with the formation of its useful juice and renders it woody. Climate particularly favourable to the production of the orange is favourable for liquorice as well. Licorice should be given room to spread, at least 1-3 square metres.
/ IMAGE 8- Oregano
Oregano is bushy, semi-woody sub-shrub with upright or spreading stems and branches. The aromatic leaves are oval-shaped, about 3-8 cm long and usually pubescent or fuzzy. During summer time oregano has tiny white to purple tube-shaped flowers that are about 0.3 cm long. These peek out from whorls of purplish-green leafy 2.5 cm long bracts that resemble little pinecones. The oregano species is easy to grow. It needs well-drained soil, plenty of sun. Its growing conditions greatly affect its flavor and strength. Oregano does not need fertilizer and using it will weaken the flavor. Plants should be spaced about 30 cm apart each way. Requires a rather dry, warm, well-drained soil in full sun, but is not fussy as to soil type, thriving on chalk. Prefers slightly alkaline conditions.
/ IMAGE 9- Poppy Seeds
P.somniferum is an erect, annual herb, 30-150 cm long with 0.5 to 1.5 cm thick stem. The root is either shy branched or much branched, tapering and yellow. Flower buds are ovoid, flowers are white to purple. When the flowers fade, a capsule remains, rounded and crowned with a star-shaped stigma. The seeds mature in a capsule left after the flower fades. Poppy seeds are like tiny hard grains and range over a wide variety of colours, from white, yellow, brown to gray and blue. The blue seeds average 1mm in length, while the white seeds are somewhat smaller. They are similar in flavour and texture and their uses are interchangeable. Poppy can be cultivated in well-drained soil in open sunny locations in subtropical regions. Direct sowing is better as transplanted ones do not grow well. It is a six months crop and sowing is done mostly in autumn.
/ IMAGE 10- Rosemary
Rosemary is woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. It’s trusses of blue flowers last through spring and summer in a warm, humid environment. It will grow to a height of between 1-1.5 m. Leaves are about 2-4 cm long, 2-5 mm broad, linear, revolute, dark green above and paler and glandular beneath. Much of the active volatile principle resides in their calyces. It has tiny, clustered, light blue, violet, pink, or white flowers. Rosemary is propagate from cuttings of the twisted wood of non-flowering branches in early summer, or layer established branches. It can also be grown from seed. The three fundamentals for succesfully growing rosemary are: sun, good drainage and air circulation. Cuttings, taken in August, 15 cm long, and dibbled into a shady border, two-thirds of their length in the ground, under a hand-glass, will root and be ready for transplanting into permanent quarters the following autumn. On a chalk soil it grows smaller, but is more fragrant. The silver-and gold-striped kinds are not quite so hardy.
/ IMAGE 11- Sage
Sage is short-lived semi-woody shrub that gets up to 60 cm tall with a similar spread. The stem is green at first, then becomes woody in its second year. It has intensely aromatic, thick, wooly, gray-green or multi-coloured, oval leaves to 7.6 cm long. The leaves have lemony, slightly bitter fragance. Flowers are blue, lilac or white. Many salvias have hairs growing on the leaves, stems, and flowers, which help to reduce water loss in some species. Sage is a fairly drought tolerant plant, but will grow better when moderately watered. It loves full sun and well drained. Can be started from seed, or start plants from cuttings of new growth in mid to late spring. Hardy to about 23°C and will grow to about 30-50 cm high.
/ IMAGE 12- Sumac
Sumac is shrub and small tree that can reach a height of 1-10 metres. It has spirally arranged leaves. The flowers are in dense panicles or spikes 5-30 centimetres long. The fruits from dense clusters of reddish drupes called sumac bobs. The dried drupes of some species are ground to produce a tangy purple spice. It is propogated by seed and by new shoots from rhizomes, forming large clonal colonies. The berries are dried and crushed to from a coarse purple-red powder
/ IMAGE 13- Thyme
Garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a small perennial shrub that may vary widely in appearance depending upon the soil and climatic conditions it is growing under. Generally this variety of thyme is stiff and bushy in appearance with many thin, erect, stalks no higher than 30 cm, that are covered by pairs of small, narrow, elliptical gray-green leaves, sometimes reddish-rust colored on the underside, and from 5-10 mm long. Thyme leaves are curled, elliptically shaped and very small, measuring about 5-10 mm long. The upper leaf is green-grey in color on top, while the underside is a whitish color. Lemon thyme is a smaller plant of similar structure that only grows to 15 cm tall. Its leaves are greener than those of garden thyme and although less pungent in flavor, have a particularly appealing lemon tang. Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. It can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It tolerates drought well.